Carum carvi L.
Caraway of the Apiaceae family, appears to have its origin in Asia Minor. The evidence of caraway was found in Middle Eastern Asia about 5000 years ago. The plant was well know to the ancient Egyptians and was introduced about 1000 years ago from northern Africa into Europe. Caraway seeds have been mainly used as a condiment for flavouring food preparations into Europe and the Middle East from ancient times.
There are about 25 species Of Carum know to occur and only Carum carvi L. has an economic importance, being used and cultivated in several regions.
In a classification of plant organs used as spice, the caraway has been categorized as a seed spice because seeds are used raw, powdered or in the form of essential oil or oleoresins.
Caraway crop requires a dry temperature climate and thrives well in tilled soils, rich in humus at an elevation of 3000-4000 m. Caraway grows as an annual at lower altitudes and as a biennial in higher altitudes up to 4000m above sea level. It prefers a lot of sunshine and low temperatures (16/20 °C) for flowering and seed setting of biennial types, whereas annual types of caraway require more heat for seed production.